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فتوى حول احتكار عملة الدولار وبيعها في السوق السوداء

أصدرت دار الإفتاء المصرية حكما حول احتكار العملة الأجنبية وبيعها في السوق السوداء، والذي أصدره مفتي مصر شوقي علام.

وأعادت الدار نشر الفتوى عبر الصفحة الرئيسية لموقعها الرسمي، حيث أجاب على السؤال شوقي إبراهيم علام، مفتي الجمهورية، ونص السؤال على “هل احتكار الدولار في أيامنا هذه يدخل تحت الاحتكار المنهي عنه، وما هو جزاء مَنْ يقوم بجمع الدولار ليضارب به بقصد الإضرار باقتصاد الدولة، وهل المال المكتسب من تجارة السوق السوداء حرامٌ شرعا؟”.

وقال مفتي مصر حول حكم احتكار العملة الأجنبية: “نعم، يدخل ذلك في الاحتكار المحرم شرعًا، وهو أيضًا مُجَرَّمٌ قانونًا، ومرتكبُ هذا الفعل مرتكبٌ لإثمٍ كبير؛ لأنه يضيق على عامة الناس من خلال ارتفاع أسعار السلع والخدمات ومتطلبات الحياة بسبب شحّ العملة، فيلحق الضرر باقتصاد البلاد، ويؤثر سلبا في الاستقرار ومسيرة البناء والتنمية، ويوقع المحتاجين في المشقة والحرج”.

وأكد المفتي أنه من ناحية أخرى لا يجوز التعامل في النقد الأجنبي إلا عن طريق البنوك وشركات الصرافة المعتمدة المرخص لها في هذا النوع من التعامل، والمال المكتسب مما يعرف بـ”تجارة السوق السوداء” كسب غير طيب.

وقال علام إن من أحد خصائص المعاملات المالية في الإسلام مراعاتها لمصالح أطراف المعاملة جميعًا بحيث لا يَلحَق ضررٌ مؤثِّرٌ بأحد الأطراف، وتلك الخصيصة طبيعة لما يمليه العدل الكامل الذي رسَّخته الشريعة الإسلامية وكل ذلك لأن المعاملات مبناها على التشاحح لا المسامحة.

وواصل المفتي عبر دار الإفتاء : “لأجل تحقيق هذا المقصد نهى الشارع عن بعض الممارسات التي قد تضر بمصالح بعض أطرافها، وسدَّ بطريقة محكمة منافذ هذه الممارسات بما يجفِّف منابعها، ومن تلك الممارسات ما يعرف بـ(الاحتكار) الذي هو أحد الأسباب الرئيسة في ظهور ما يعرف بالسوق السوداء”.

وقال المفتي إن المعنى الملاحظ في كل هذه التعريفات أنَّ الاحتكار يكون في الأقوات، أي ما يقوم به بدن الإنسان من الطعام-، لكن هذا المعنى مختلف فيه، فقد وقع الخلاف بين الفقهاء في العلة التي من أجلها مُنِع الاحتكار، والبحث عن علة المنع من الاحتكار يُبْنَى عليه القول في حكم احتكار الدولار.

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